IECEx Definition: IECEx is the IEC System for Certification for Standards relating to Equipment for Use in Explosive Atmospheres Comments: The objective of the IECEx System is to facilitate international trade in equipment and services for use in explosive atmospheres, while maintaining the required level of safety: reduced testing and certification costs to manufacturer reduced time to market international confidence in the product assessment process one international database listing maintaining International Confidence in equipment and services covered by IECEx Certification The IECEx System comprises the following The IECEx Certified Equipment Scheme The IECEx Certified Service Facilities Scheme The IECEx Conformity Mark Licensing System The IECEx Certification of Personnel Competencies (CoPC) Applications Ex equipment Manufacturers, Ex Service Providers and persons seeking IECEx certification can apply to IECEx Certification Bodies (termed ExCBs), in any country. Countries and Certification Bodies can apply to become members of the IECEx System with Certification bodies able to issue IECEx Certificates once accepted according to the application procedures. Rules of the IECEx System including Rules of Procedures are available, free of charge, from the IECEx website National Member Bodies of the IEC System make application for their country to participate in the IECEx System on a Standard-by-Standard basis. The application is made to the Secretary of the Ex Management Committee. Certification bodies and testing laboratories wishing to be accepted into the IECEx System must reside in a participating country. Their application for acceptance is made through their National Member Body of the IECEx System for the country in which they reside. Certification bodies and testing laboratories are accepted into the IECEx System after satisfactory assessment of their competence. Assessors are selected who will provide confidence to regulatory authorities, users, manufacturers and certification bodies. ISO/IEC Standards and Guides 17025, 65 and IECEx Technical Guidance Documents are used as part of the IECEx assessment process. http://www.iecex.com
Industrial Digitalization Since 2000, the computerization of the manufacturing processes has changed dramatically. Each decade we saw evolutions preparing ground for the Future of Manufacturing revolution. With the increasing role of the software in the value chain, the degree of technology digitalization and manufacturing integration goes along four major steps. The four steps of the Industrial Digitalization can be identified as: 1) Local Automation Technology 2) Communication-based Automation for Production Network Manufacturing Management 3) Production Optimization by Innovative Software Systems (Digital Enterprise Platform) for Convergence between Virtual World and Real World 4) Organization and Optimization of the Cyber Physical System for Plug & Produce Operations
Industry Renaissance (USA) USA branded their “Future of Manufacturing” program as “Industry Renaissance” in order to send a clear message that the time of the economy only based on services and happy few high technology champions is over. The transfer to China of the US manufacturing activities during a decade and the subprime crisis highlighted the US sensitivity to downturn of an economy short of hard assets compared with other countries. In addition this transfer hurt the US middle class finding their jobs in the manufacturing sector. Among the good news the success story of the shale gas popped up right on time to change the name of the game in providing US with cheap and endless resources as a fundamental competitive advantage to support any industrial restoration ambition. Apple offered US the best example of the opportunity to relocate manufacturing activities in US when its clients realized that their so sophisticated smartphones were produced in China by…robots. Should these smartphones be assembled by robots; why not to do it in US then? Especially when the energy costs drop to the floor. In this context USA has been among the first countries in the 2010s years to pioneer an interpretation of the “Future of Manufacturing” in launching its “Industry Renaissance” program. To support it, USA establishes “Advanced Manufacturing Partnerships” (AMP) involving industries, academia, institutions and government.
IOC Definition: IOC is the acronym of International Oil Company and nominates the Oil & Gas companies which are privately owned and operate globally. Comment: The most well-known IOCs are ExxonMobil, ChevronTexaco, , BP, Shell, Total, ConocoPhillips. They are also called the Major Companies or simply the Majors as they are the biggest petroleum companies in the world and among the biggest of all the industries in term of revenues or capitalization.
IPP Definition: IPP is the acronym of Independent Power Project. IPP may also be used for Independent power Producer. In both cases IPP refers to non-public utility company investing or operating power generation facilities. Comments Until the years 1980s, the power generation facilities were mostly run by public entities in each country regardless if they were gas fired, coal fired or even more if nuclear powered. Since this period, the constant growth of energy consumption in all countries requested to local governments to increase production capacities accordingly. But the amount of capital expenditure required to build and operate these additional power generation facilities were not necessary easy to finance, especially in emerging countries. Therefore the local governments of these emerging countries offered to private investors to opportunity to build and operate new power plants. This decision was even facilitated when the power consumption increase was mainly due to the industrial development with greenfield plants to be energized. In this case, the new build power plant will have few industrial customers with whom it will be possible to sign a power purchase agreement (PPA) without having any political impact on the domestic consumers. In countries developing power intensive industry such as oil and gas and petrochemical in the Middle East, most of the power generation is driven by the industry. In these countries, the oil and gas resources are available \"for free\" in the ground, thus the production costs is mostly driven by the energy costs. In addition several oil and gas and petrochemical processes need quantity of steam, like crackers. This steam may be collected for energy production. As a result the emergence of these factors over the last 20 years favored for the local government the conditions to create a private energy market. To do so, these emerging countries adopted new regulations to encourage private investors to build and operate independent power projects (IPPs) compensated by long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs). These new build power generation facilities were then connected to the main power system through the local grid. IPPs offered an easy solution to provide a quick response to the fast growing energy demand in many emerging countries. In addition to the power, the greenfield IPPs have contributed to modernize the local regulations to help private sector and public sector to co-operate in large projects and over a long period of time. They also contributed to develop new technologies to improve energy efficiency and reduce environmental impact since the private investors are compensated by constant fees over long term contracts.