Glossary

Since the performance in global projects is about communication to co-ordinate global and local initiatives, it appeared imperative to create this glossary.

You will find words related to technology as well as commercial and contractual terms.

For each word you will find a definition as short and simple as possible and comments to make the best use of it.

With new technologies and new practices, new words or new understandings to come up at any time, feel free to comment. We expect to handle this section as a permanent  interactive learning session.

Many thanks in advance for your contribution

EDC : Definition: EDC is the acronym for Ethylene DiChloride, the common name given to the 1,2 Dichloroethane. As derivated from Ethylene it belongs to the first Olefin family. EDC is mostly produced by catalyzed reaction of the Ethylene and Chloride. Comments: EDC is a colorless liquid with a mild odor. It is toxic and extremely flammable. EDC is a good organic solvent but slightly soluble in water. About 95% of the EDC production is converted to Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) for PVC production. Some is used as an organic solvent, as a fumigant, and in the chemical synthesis of various products.
EEZ : Definition EEZ is the acronym of Exclusive Economic Zone EEZ defines the maritime area of 200 nautical miles distance (370 km) from the coast baseline where each state is entitled to empower its sovereign rights. Comments The legal definition of the EEZ was given in 1982 by the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The Part V Article 55 of the UN Convention defines the EEZ as: \"The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.\" The needs for a better control of the maritime activities appeared in South America and US at the end of the second world war as at that time the sovereignty of the countries was limited to 12 nautical miles (22 km). In addition to the EEZ, the States have got rights applicable to the seabed. This seabed is called Continental shelf and the distance applicable is 350 nautical miles (648km), far different from the 200 nautical miles of the sea water surface. The legal definition of the continental shelf may be complex to establish as it includes sub-sea continental rises and slopes. Originated in South America and USA, the EEZ were seen easy to implement since the number of overlapping EEZ was limited in these regions and potentially easy to solve as these countries are bordering wide opened oceans. But when transposed in some other regions of the world where the maritime space is congested by straits, islands, gulfs bordered by multiple countries the implementation of the new regulation created more questions than answers since the same EEZ turned to be contested by two or more countries. That is the case in Middle-East within the Mediterranean Sea and in Asia with the South China Sea. The situation in the South China Sea is really complex because of the number of neighboring countries, Brunei, China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam with overlapping EZZ. But today it turns even more critical since the South China Sea appears to contain oil and gas rich resources. As a result, for example Philippines renamed the South China Sea as Philippines Western Sea. Beyond the branding of the seas the tensions increase between all the bordering countries each time one of them award concessions or blocks for exploration and production. Each sanction is immediately declared illegal by the contesting countries. Anyway even sometimes the war ships cross each other within these seas, conflicts are unlikely to happen has it would immediately stop exploration and production what they can\'t afford. Thus the business should predominate at the benefit of all the neighboring countries.
EOR : Definition EOR is the acronym of enhanced oil recovery and refers to all the ultimate technologies to compensate the natural depletion of the oil and gas fields Comments In developing a new oil and gas field, the natural pressure of the reservoir is at its maximum. For the oil fields, this natural pressure combined with the viscosity of the oil and the percentage of associated gas will determine the producing conditions. For the non-associated gas reservoirs, it will be the combination of the natural pressure of the gas and the percentage of condensate. If those natural pressures are too high, above 500 bar, the drilling operations and production will remain always challenging to keep the control of the wells. If too low, below 20 bar, the oil and gas production will request soon some assistance.. In this context, the oil and gas recovery is defined in three stages. The first stage is called Primary Oil Recovery and correspond to the first period of production when the oil and gas can flow through the reservoir up to the wellheads naturally without any assistance. In general, the quantity of oil and gas collected during the Primary Oil Recovery period represents 5 to 15% of the Original Oil In Place (OOIP). The second stage is the Assisted Oil Recovery and starts when the natural pressure in the reservoirs declined that much that some additional help must be provided with extra pumps and compressors to stimulate the production up to collecting 10 to 30% of the OOIP. The third stage is when the operating companies want to go beyond this level of recovery, up to 60% of the OOIP. This third stage defines what is called the Enhanced Oil Recovery or EOR. Since the production costs escalate exponentially for each additional percentage of recovery, the oil and gas field must contain a significant remaining quantity of barrels of oil equivalent (boe) to justify the corresponding capital expenditure. At a certain point of recovery somewhere between 30% and 60% it is better to stop investing and leave the oil and gas recoverable reserves in the ground in the meantime that technology improvements or oil and gas market prices open new opportunities to produce again. Technically the EOR uses different solutions, such as water or gas injection, chemical injection, thermal methods Gas injection is commonly used with CO², natural gas or nitrogen, as the injection increases the pressure in the reservoir pushing the oil out. In addition these gases reduce the viscosity of the oil when mixed together. Chemical injection may use alkaline or caustic solutions to combine with organic acids contained in the oil to produce soap reducing the capillary pressure of the oil and improving the its flow across the reservoir. Similar effect may be obtained with polymers injection or surfactants such as the sulfonates. More recently these surfactants could be developed by the injection of microbes digesting hydrocarbon molecules and producing bio-surfactants in-situ. Thermal methods are mostly based on steam injection vertically or horizontally in order to increase the pressure in the reservoir and heat up the oil to reduce its viscosity. The thermal method required a lot of energy and water, even if recycled, so it is reserved for specific applications such as the ultra heavy crude oil, the oil shale or the shale gas.
EPC : Definition: The acronym EPC stands for Engineering Procurement and Construction. Sometimes EPCC may be used for Engineering Procurement, Construction and Commissioning. In both cases, it refers to the execution phase following the FEED during which the engineering companies design all the details of the project for execution, proceed to the procurement of all the equipment and services under the name of the End User and finally construct the new plant including the commissioning and start up, until the hand over to the operator. The operator may be the End User himself or a JV with multiple End Users being involved. Because of the level of detail requested for the execution this phase may also be called Detailed design. Comments: During the EPC phase, the engineering companies may work with different types of contract, but always under a close follow up of the End User. In practice it means that the nominated EPC. By extension EPC is used for the engineering companies executing EPC contracts. Note that all the engineering companies are not necessary EPC as some of them focus on the FEED or multiple services but the EPC contracts as they require different expertise and financial dimension.
EPCM : Definition: The acronym EPCM stands for “Engineering, Procurement and Construction Management”. It may also be called EPCS for “Engineering, Procurement and Construction Services” or PMS for Project Management Services. As expressed clearly in the PMS definition, the EPCM refers to very different role from the EPC where the engineering company having the EPCM contract, supports the End Users in supervising the good execution of the project by the EPC companies. Comment: An EPCM contract is solely a service contract, by contrast with the EPC contract. It may be seen as an interface between the End User and the EPC companies, but it takes a major importance in case of multiple EPC involved in the same complex project and calling for a close co-ordination. In some case the engineering company nominated as EPCM may also act as EPC, but those roles will run according to different contracts.
Epichlorohydrin (ECH or EPI) : Definition: Epichlorohydrin (ECH or EPI) is a highly reactive chemical intermediate. In its pure form, it is a clear, colorless liquid. The presence of both an epoxide ring and a chlorine atom in the molecule allows epichlorohydrin to readily undergo a variety of chemical reactions with many types of compounds. This versatility earns its wide use as a chemical intermediate Comments: Epichlorohydrin is flammable and considered as a hazardous chemical. If released into the environment, however, it biodegrades rapidly. Direct, prolonged contact with pure Epichlorohydrin as liquid can severely damage the skin and eyes. Vapors may also produce eye irritation and damage to cornea of the eye. Epichlorohydrin is a probable carcinogen, a poison that can cause death at higher exposures, a mutagen and a skin sensitizer. Occupational exposures are possible; however, consumer exposures are not likely because end-use products are expected to contain only trace levels of Epichlorohydrin. Industrial operations use Epichlorohydrin in closed systems and are designed with engineering controls to minimize personnel and environmental exposures. The primary process for producing Epichlorohydrin consists of three steps: 1. Chlorination of propylene to form allyl chloride 2. Reaction of the allyl chloride with hypochlorous acid to produce glycerol dichlorohydrin 3. Reaction of the glycerol dichlorohydrin isomers with sodium hydroxide or calcium hydroxide to produce Epichlorohydrin. Epichlorohydrin is produced out of propylene or natural glycerin. The new processes developped to use glycerin offer the advantage to be more energy efficient and to operate with a natural renewable feedstock. Approximately 76% of the world’s consumption of (EPI) is used to make epoxy resins. The Dow Chemical and Solvay are the biggest producers of Epichlorohydrin
Ethylene : Definition: Ethylene is one of the most important Olefin products. It is a colourless, flammable gas with a slightly sweet odor. It comes directly from the cracking in a steam cracker of different feedstocks: Gas such as ethane, propane, butane Liquid naphtha coming from oil refineries. Comments: In the chain of Ethylene derivatives, Polyethylene (PE) is the most common one representing more than 50% of world ethylene demand. The primary use of polyethylene is in film applications for packaging, carrier bags and trash liners. Other applications include injection moulding, pipe extrusion, wire and cable sheathing and insulation, as well as extrusion coating of paper and cardboard.
Ethylene Dichloride : Definition: Ethylene Dichloride is the common name given to the 1,2 Dichloroethane. It is also called EDC. As derivated from Ethylene it belongs to the first Olefin family. EDC is mostly produced by catalyzed reaction of the Ethylene and Chloride. Comments: EDC is a colorless liquid with a mild odor. It is toxic and extremely flammable. EDC is a good organic solvent but slightly soluble in water. About 95% of the EDC production is converted to Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) for PVC production. Some is used as an organic solvent, as a fumigant, and in the chemical synthesis of various products.
ETP : Definition: EPT stands for Ethylene Propylene diene Terpolymer. ETP is the co-polymer of ethylene, propylene and diene EPT is also called EPDM by reference to Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Comment: The primary synthetic rubbers include nitrile, isoprene, styrene-butadiene, butyl, chloroprene, polysulfide, silicone, urethane and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (ETP) or Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) The synthetics rubbers are called indistinctly ETP or EPDM EPT is a synthetic rubber known for its superior ability to cope with various climatic conditions, and its resistance to ozone, heat and coldness. It also performs well as an electric insulator and is known for its chemical resistance. It has been widely used in automotive parts, electric wires and cables, as well as many other industrial products because of its good resistance to heat/cold, UV rays, and chemicals, in addition to good electric insulation and other superior properties. For roof covering an EPT membrane is widely use because of its high elasticity and tensile strength. excellent resistance to U.V. and ozone, its flexibility at low temperature (-45°C), its resistance to temperature shocks up to 250°C and alkali rains.
Exclusive Economic Zone : Definition: Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) defines the maritime area of 200 nautical miles distance (370 km) from the coast baseline where each state is entitled to empower its sovereign rights. Comments The legal definition of the EEZ was given in 1982 by the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). The Part V Article 55 of the UN Convention defines the EEZ as: \"The exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, subject to the specific legal regime established in this Part, under which the rights and jurisdiction of the coastal State and the rights and freedoms of other States are governed by the relevant provisions of this Convention.\" The needs for a better control of the maritime activities appeared in South America and US at the end of the second world war as at that time the sovereignty of the countries was limited to 12 nautical miles (22 km). In addition to the EEZ, the States have got rights applicable to the seabed. This seabed is called Continental shelf and the distance applicable is 350 nautical miles (648km), far different from the 200 nautical miles of the sea water surface. The legal definition of the continental shelf may be complex to establish as it includes sub-sea continental rises and slopes. Originated in South America and USA, the EEZ were seen easy to implement since the number of overlapping EEZ was limited in these regions and potentially easy to solve as these countries are bordering wide opened oceans. But when transposed in some other regions of the world where the maritime space is congested by straits, islands, gulfs bordered by multiple countries the implementation of the new regulation created more questions than answers since the same EEZ turned to be contested by two or more countries. That is the case in Middle-East within the Mediterranean Sea and in Asia with the South China Sea. The situation in the South China Sea is really complex because of the number of neighboring countries, Brunei, China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan and Vietnam with overlapping EZZ. But today it turns even more critical since the South China Sea appears to contain oil and gas rich resources. As a result, for example Philippines renamed the South China Sea as Philippines Western Sea. Beyond the branding of the seas the tensions increase between all the bordering countries each time one of them award concessions or blocks for exploration and production. Each sanction is immediately declared illegal by the contesting countries. Anyway even sometimes the war ships cross each other within these seas, conflicts are unlikely to happen has it would immediately stop exploration and production what they can\'t afford. Thus the business should predominate at the benefit of all the neighboring countries.