Glossary

Since the performance in global projects is about communication to co-ordinate global and local initiatives, it appeared imperative to create this glossary.

You will find words related to technology as well as commercial and contractual terms.

For each word you will find a definition as short and simple as possible and comments to make the best use of it.

With new technologies and new practices, new words or new understandings to come up at any time, feel free to comment. We expect to handle this section as a permanent  interactive learning session.

Many thanks in advance for your contribution

C4 : Definition: In the petrochemical industry C4 refers to the branch of Olefins which begins with C4.... in their chemical formulas. C4 is used to nominated the Butadiene and all its derivatives Comments: Among the C4 family, the mostly used products are the Butylene isomers such as, Isoprene, Butyl Rubber (BTR), Styrene, Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS).The Butyl Rubber (BTR) is mostly used for the tire and rubber industry. The big advantage: high impermeability to gases and liquids. This property is particularly useful for tire inner liners and inner tubes and other applications in pharmaceutical closures and protective clothing.
CBM : Definition: CBM is the acronym of CoalBed Methane. CBM is a form of natural gas found along with coal seams underground. It is also called as Sweet gas because of lack of hydrogen sulphide in it Comments: In a natural gas reservoir, gas is compressed by the pressure in the formation. Expansion of the gas provides the means for the gas to be produced. In a coal reservoir, the gas is stored within the coal matrix by a process known as adsorption. Note that this process is adsorption, and not absorption In adsorption, the gas molecules adhere to the surface of the coal. Coal is naturally fractured, with closely spaced, regular, planar fractures that are collectively known as cleats. As the reservoir pressure is reduced, gas is released from the coal surface, diffuses through the coal matrix, flows through the fracture system of the coal, and then on to be produced. Gas stored by adsorption can, under certain conditions exceed gas stored by compression. The release of gas is commonly described by a pressure relationship called the Langmuir Isotherm. For the purposes of CBM production a coal reservoir is considered to be a system that consists of fractures and matrix. This concept is similar to the model proposed by Warren and Root and is shown below.
Central Processing Facility : Definition: Central Processing Facility or Central Processing plant is commonly called CPF. Comments In the industry CPF may refers to any kind of manufacturing process as soon as it belongs to the core of the transformation of the facility. In the Oil and Gas industry, CPF belongs to the upstream activity to described the production unit performing the first transformation of the crude oil or raw natural gas after the production wells. In both cases, oil and gas, the crude oil and the raw natural gas extracted from the wells may contain many other materials than the crude oil or natural gas such as expected by the refineries or the gas liquefaction units. At the head of the production wells, the crude oil is collected with a proportion of the so called associated gas, with water and sand, and with all the types of solvents and additives used to enhance the oil production. The associated gas itself is a raw natural gas which may also contain, as the non-associated gas, a mix of various gases and liquids such as methane, ethane, propane, condensate and less interesting H2S. Transporting this mixture of crude oil or raw natural gas as it is from the well pad to a refinery or LNG plant may be challenging onshore or not even possible offshore as they request dedicated transportation processes. In addition the distances between the well pads and the refineries or gas liquefaction units increase over the years since companies explore always further. We may also considered that for the last 10 years we have entered in the era of the so called \\\"technological barrel\\\", not only because of the challenges to extract it from the underground, but also because of the quality of the mixture of the crude oil and raw natural gas deteriorating over the years. CPF a key ring of the Technological Barrel chain In this context and in order to avoid to ship crude oil or raw natural gas loaded by high percentages of impurities across the globe to be separated after transportation, the oil and gas companies have developed the concept of Central Processing Facility or CPF. The CPF is going to be installed as closed as possible to the production wells, meaning in a central position of the well pad or offshore platform. The crude oil or raw natural gas just collected from the wellheads can be directed by the shortest way to the CPF. If the main production of the field is crude oil, the purpose of the CPF is to separate the oil from the associated gas, the water, the sand and solvents or additives. The oil will be stored in tanks farm if onshore, or floating storage unit (FSU) if offshore, before being carried out by pipeline or shipped by tanker. The water may be treated and disposed or re-injected to enhance the production. The solvents and additives are collected to re-use. Central Processing Facilities to prevent Flaring In the past the associated gas was sent to the flare as considered as non valuable compared with the oil and because the environmental constraints were barely considered. Today the associated gas will be treated, in the same way as raw natural gas coming from non-associated gas, in a dedicated gas central processing facility. The gas CPF will separate the methane from the other gases, condensate, sulfur, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, CO2, etc... Each extracted component will be stored in dedicated areas for shipment with also dedicated transportation means. In some cases the CO2 may be collected for re-injection to enhance production or just to be stored in empty fields available around. Since the operating companies want to minimize flaring for environmental concern, they investigate all solution to monetize each and every ingredient collected together with the crude oil and raw natural gas. Therefore all the new fields developed must include at least a gas CPF and with crude oil they will also need an oil CPF. Most of the companies have also adopted in their good practice to reduce flaring on existing fields, thus to upgrade or revamp the upstream operations in adding new gas CPF or improving the performances of the actual ones.
Clean fuels : Definition Clean fuels appeared in the 1990s to refers to energies to be used in transportation applications as a substitute of the conventional diesel and gasoline. Since then the wording Clean Fuel has been adopted by refiners to designate the new diesel and gasoline developed to improve efficiency and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and solid parts. Comments In August 1994, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) had defined the Clean fuels as the energies, but diesel and gasoline, capable of powering vehicles. In these Clean fuels, EPA had considered: - Electricity regardless of the source of supply (nuclear, gas, coal, hydro, wind, solar) - Alcohols (methanol or ethanol) - Natural gas (methane) - Propane These Clean fuels were selected as emitting less hydrocarbons. In addition these hydrocarbons have in addition less toxicity and impact on the environment. In using Clean fuels EPA estimates that these emissions could be reduced by 90% compared with conventional gasoline and diesel at that time. In addition to the environmental impact some of these Clean fuels offer also the advantage for oil and gas consuming countries, such as Europe or North America, to reduce their energetic reliance on producing countries. In response to the risks of potential drastic changes in the energy portfolio of the transportation activities, the refiners reacted and proposed a new gasoline called “reformulated gasoline”. With the reformulated gasoline, the targets of the refiners was to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases up to 25% compared with conventional ones. If t that time this reformulated and oxygenated gasoline is still far to meet the other Clean fuels, it doe not request any modification of the vehicles and any changes in the habits of the drivers when refueling. From this first success, the refiners have been continuously working to develop lower emissions diesel and gasoline branded depending on the countries as low sulfur or ultra low sulfur diesel and unleaded gasoline. But this evolution takes times as it requests massive capital expenditure in the refineries and adjustments in the design of the engines. Not all engines can accepts all grades of diesel and gasoline, therefore the development of the low emissions diesel and gasoline must go in parallel with the engines. Since each country has different fleet of transportation vehicles in term of average age, type of vehicle and fuel, diesel or gasoline, it appeared impossible to harmonize on a global base the standards for the emissions of these Clean fuels. Thus, there is no standards defining Clean fuels as such, but each country has developed its own regulations and tax incentive systems to use transportation fuels providing reduced emissions of greenhouse gas and solid parts. To drive these steps changes, Europe published a series of European Directives called Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4, the actual Euro 5 enforced since 2009, and the Euro 6 to be applicable in 2014. These standards cover the emissions of CO², solid parts, NOx, hydrocarbons. Between each standard, the reductions may reach 20 to 50%, providing significant improvement over the years. In the USA, California has its own regulation proposed under California LEV III rules, and the EPA is working on the \"Tier 3\" standard defining the rules for the light vehicles and the refining industry to be enforced in 2017. The EPA Tier 3 standard should will align with California regulation.
Coal gasification : Definition: The coal gasification is a technology that converts coal into a synthesis gas (or syngas) that can then be used to produce chemicals or other products. The syngas produced from coal is also called \"Town gas\". The syngas is a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O) Comments: The syngas issued from coal is a combustible gas traditionally used as a source of energy for municipal lighting and heat before the advent of industrial-scale production of natural gas The hydrogen obtained from the coal gasification can be used for multiple applications such as producing olefins or ammonia, that is called Coal-To-Chemical or Coal-To-Olefin, or used directly for powering a hydrogen power generation plant in upgrading fossil fuels. Alternatively, the syngas can be converted into transportation fuels such as gasoline or diesel according to the Fischer-Tropsch process, that is called Coal-To-Liquid conversion. During gasification process the coal is blown through with oxygen and steam while also being heated and pressurized. During the reaction, oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal and produce this gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O). Some by-products may be obtain as well like tar, phenols, etc. .. This process may also be conducted in-situ within natural coal seams, it is called Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). The coal gasification had been well developped from mid 19th Century to the Second World War, but then the low prices of the other fossil fuels such oil and gas had turned off most of the coal gasification industry. Today with the high price of the oil, above $80 per barrel and the gas in Asia above $18 per mBTU, the coal gasification becomes again competitive, especially in countries like China and USA which have the world biggest coal resources and are the biggest energy consumers.
Collaborative Platform : In order to support this process of on-time interactions between all the players involved in the supply chain, Future of Manufacturing introduces the concept of collaborative platform where they will online exchange all the information and data to develop the best solution for the client and facilitate the relationships to optimize the corresponding supply chain in the most flexible and competitive way without sacrificing margins. Through a Collaborative Platform all actors will interact in parallel instead of in series with the benefit to reduce costs and lead time to converge all together on the optimal solution for the client.
Conceptual study : Definition Conceptual Study stands in the oil and gas and petrochemical industry at the very early stage of a greenfield project to identify all the possibilities and conditions to develop this project. Comments During the conceptual study, the engineers will: - Investigate the multiple technologies to be used - Evaluate the costs of each solution, especially during the total life cycle of the project including capital expenditure for the construction (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) to run the plant - Estimate construction challenges versus benefits in operations and vice versa - Measure the impact on the environment (foot print, water and energy consumption, CO2 emissions, local acceptance, decommissioning and restoration costs) - Draft planning corresponding to each solution to identify critical items - Identify potential risks on the project and hazards for personnel - List all the required offsites and utilities - Determine all the infrastructures needed to bring in the feedstock and to export the production - Include local constraints about regulation, taxations, employment, content After this technical and budgetary evaluation, all the pros and cons will be considered to select the optimized process for a specific project in a given environment Not all the projects have the same complexity and therefore the same need of an extensive conceptual study. When completed, and if validated, the conceptual study will be the base for the front-end engineering and design (FEED) of the project. If the oil and gas companies perform sometimes their own conceptual studies, they sub-contract the FEED to engineering companies and later on the engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts.
Concession : Definition Concession is a form of contract in the oil and gas industry between a State and a company to explore and develop these resources. Comments Oil and gas concessions are very similar to mining concessions considering that in all countries, except USA, and few others the underground belongs to the State, not to the owner of the upper land. In this general legal context, the State represented by its Government, or its legal Authority, grants the rights and obligations to an operating company to explore, develop and produce oil and gas resources as any mining company. These concessions apply the same way for onshore or offshore development as long as located in the Continental Shelf of the State. The area subjected to a concession is usually called a block with its own rights and obligations. These concessions are long term agreements signed between the State of a producing country and the operating company, usually an International Oil Company (IOC), for at least 20 years. Some concessions in Abu Dhabi with BP, ExxonMobil or Total may be 65 years old. Again, as extrapolated from historical mining code in each country, the financial structure of an oil and gas concession is pretty simple as based on two phases, exploration and production. The operating company, or a pool of them, shall buy a concession license for the exploration of a given block. Then the operating company shall pay to the local State a fee per barrel produced in compensation of the production of oil and gas. This concession fee will depend on the barrel price at the time of the signature of the concession, and also on the quantity and quality of the oil and gas produced such as estimated at the exploration phase. Usually this concession fee per barrel, or per Barrel of Oil Equivalent (BOE), is fixed for the duration of the concession. In practice it means that the State will receive this fee regardless of the capital expenditure, profits and losses of the operating company. All the costs and risks are left to the operating company, but also all the profits exceeding the fee. This last point created a lot of tensions between the producing countries and the operating companies when concessions were signed 15 to 20 years ago when the barrel price was fluctuating between $10 and $20 per barrel. At that time the concession fees were a couple of USD per barrel, which then turned the concessions contracts totally unbalanced when the barrel prices started to rocket to $30, $50 and of course $100 per barrel. So these last 10 years all the countries having such concession contracts investigated all the ways to renegotiate the compensation of the concession, either directly, either in introducing taxes. Of course the operating companies were very reluctant to accept these changes, not just because it was reducing their growth margins, but also because they had no guaranty to revise these fees downward in the case the barrel price would come down again during the remaining period of the concession. With the barrel price not only increasing significantly but more importantly fluctuating heavily depending on multiple factors including USD currency, the concession contract appeared less and less adapted to regulate the rights and obligations between States and International Oil Company (IOC) which now prefer to use production sharing contracts (PSC).
Condensate : Definition: Condensate is referring to the natural gas liquids (NGLs) contained in the raw gas. Comments The raw gas or gas is made of natural gas (methane) and condensate. When the gas is produced from the reservoir it contains roughly 80%-95% methane and 20%-5% condensate. These condensate or natural gas liquids (NGLs) are mainly ethane, ethylene, propane, butane, butylene, isobutane, isobutylene, or pentane. Most of these condensate are valuable feedstock for the petrochemical industry. These condensate are separated from the natural gas (methane) close to the gas field before transportation. There are two types of natural gas liquids: - The normally liquids which can be extracted right at the wellheads - The condensed gaseous liquids which request compression or refrigeration treatment at the gas processing plant. These condensates may also be classified into two categories: - Lighter hydrocarbons, such as ethane and propane - Heavier hydrocarbons, such as pentane, hexane, heptane Propane and Butane are easy to liquefied by compression, then they can be stored, transported and distributed in steel frame bottles for domestic use in cooking or heating. The heavier hydrocarbons may be used to produce gasoline since they are liquid at normal pressure and temperatures. They are called lease condensate or natural gasoline. As a results the gas field producing nearly exclusively natural gas is called dry gas as it contains very few condensate. In opposite way, when a gas field produces a lot of condensate it is called wet gas.
Consortium : Definition Consortium refers in the oil and gas and petrochemical industry to a group of individuals or legal entities or a combination of individuals and legal entities which mobilizes their respective resources for the accomplishment of a task going beyond the capabilities of each member of the group. Comments In a consortium, the legal entities may be registered companies, associations, institutions, or government representatives. A consortium is not a legal entity by itself, the interests, rights and duties of the consortium are supported directly by the individuals or legal entities of the members of the consortium. A consortium is materialized by a contract called Consortium Agreement. This contract signed between all the members describes typically: - The purpose of the consortium, such as an oil and gas project - The duration - The members of the consortium with the description of their respective contribution to the common purpose of the consortium - The Committees representing the members of the consortium and to drive the good execution of the consortium task. - The rights and obligations of each member between each other and with third parties - The rules to share the costs of the consortium - The rules to handle the licenses and intellectual properties - The liabilities between each other and with third parties In fact a consortium is running not as a company but as a contract, so that the Consortium Agreement prevails between the members regardless the contracts signed with third parties such as a customer. To perform successfully a consortium it is essential that the scope of work such as defined in the Consortium Agreement between the members does match with the terms of the customer\'s contract. In case of failure of the consortium to execute the common task according to plans, each member shall be solely liable for any loss, damage or injury to third parties resulting from its faulty actions or omissions from non-respect of the provisions of the Consortium Agreement. The communication between all the members and with the third parties is a key factor of success for a Consortium. Through the Consortium Agreement, each member is committed to allocated the necessary manpower and competences in respect with his own scope of work. Therefore each member shall be fully responsible to meet its own commitments such as defined in the Consortium Agreement until full completion of the purpose of the consortium.
Continental Shel : Definition Continental Shelf (CS) refers to the part of the seabed sloping gently between the coast and the deep ocean. Geographically and legally the definition of the Continental Shelf is different from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Comments The Continental Shelf is the sub-sea extension of the continent where the waters are still shallow, between 150 and 200 meters deep, compared to deep water and ultra deep waters, with several thousands meters of depth. Between the Continental Shelf and the deep ocean, there are still two zones, the Continental Slope and the Continental Rise. The Continental Slope is the part where the seabed goes down steeply from the Continental Shelf to the deep waters. The Continental Rise is at the foot of the Continental Slope where the seabed accumulates sediments falling from the slope giving to the seabed again a gentle slope profile within deep or ultra deep waters. Around the continents, the width of the Continental Shelf vary from 20 to 500 kilometers. These Continental Shelf areas have taken an up most importance on the last years because the shallow waters above the Continental Shelf are normally rich of seafood and make easy to reach the resources laying within the Continental Shelves, such as oil and gas. Because many countries wanted to develop these resources for food or energy purpose, the United Nations, Oceans & Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) published on August 29th, 1980 the definition of the Continental Shelf and criteria for the establishment of its outer limits. Within this document, the Continental Shelf takes a legal dimension as described in the Article 76, paragraphs 4-7 of the Convention: \"The continental shelf of a coastal State comprises the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance\". In this article the specified 200 nautical miles do match with the 200 nautical miles such as defined in the Article 55 of this United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , for the limits of the maritime Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Unfortunately the Continental Shelf may go geographically far beyond these EEZ 200 nautical miles, for example in USA it can reach 400 miles. Therefore the Convention had to provide with an additional definition on the Continental Shelf to consider its extension in some cases up to 350 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea. Within this legal definition of the Continental Shelf, the Article 77 gives rights to the coastal States, to explore and exploite the natural resources. Regarding the oil and gas sector, the most active regions using these rights in shallow waters are the: - North Sea, divided between the UK\'s Continental Shelf (UKCS) and the Norway\'s Continental Shel (NCS) - All countries around the South China Sea (Brunei, China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam) - USA - Australia and New Zeland The Continental Shelf, the Territorial Waters and the EEZ follow different legal definitions according to the United Nations, Oceans & Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
Converted FPSO : Definition Converted FPSO refers to a Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel made by the modification of an existing transportation vessel, usually a crude oil shuttle tanker. Converted FPSO opposes to new-build FPSO which is designed and constructed from a white page. Comments The conversion of a transportation vessel into a FPSO is a common practice used in multiple situations such as costs reduction, shorter lead time or asset management. The total capital expenditure to acquire an old tanker and to convert it into a production unit such as a FPSO may costs some US$ hundreds million while the design, engineering and construction of a new-build FPSO of the same capacity may reach quickly the US$ billion. In addition many shipyards may be able to perform this conversion while a few will have the capacity to hold the hull of a new-build FPSO in construction. This availability of the shipyards has an impact on the costs but also on the lead time. A tanker may be converted into a FPSO in some months while a new-build FPSO will take a couple of years from the final investment decision (FID). For companies operating tankers and FPSOs, the conversion of tankers into FPSO may also be an easy and efficient way to optimize its assets management, since the value produced by a FPSO may be ten times higher than a simple tanker. It is also the best way to give to an old transportation vessel and second life instead of decommissioning it. This conversion process may also apply to other types of applications such as: - Floating Storage and Offloading (FSO) unit - Floating Production and Offloading (FPO) unit - Floating Storage and Regasification Unit (FSRU) Each one of these types of vessel must then meet the requirements of the applications regarding the geographical location, storage capacity, space and weight capacities to receive all the necessary equipment. Therefore the selection of the transportation vessel is critical to allow the conversion. Then this old vessel must be inspected and assessed to check how much: - Its life cycle may be extended - It would costs to revamp it before the conversion itself. When validated the vessel requires engineering work to define how to make the best used of the available volume and load available on the vessel such as: - Structural analysis - Motion Response Analysis The typical equipment or modifications to be executed for the conversion are about the: - Modification of hull and machinery systems - Upgrade of the naval systems - Integration of the turret systems - Topside arrangement - Living quarter - Helicopter deck - Process modules - Process control system and electrical system - Power generation and electrical distribution Then depending on the applications the converted FPSO should also include: - Oil and gas central processing units - Gas lift system - Gas or water injection system. The accumulation of these equipment and systems to be integrated increases with the size and complexity of the oil and gas field where the converted FPSO should be installed. Meaning that this accumulation of constraints on a simple shuttle tanker may exceed the capacities of any existing vessel or at a costs and risk that it will require the construction of a new-build FPSO. Therefore the converted FPSO will be mostly used for small or medium size oil and gas offshore fields where the quality of the crude oil and the raw natural gas is good enough to minimize the processing operations on board. In larger and more complex fields, the operating companies will design a dedicated new-build FPSO also called build-on-purpose FPSO.
CPF : Definition: CPF is the acronym of Central Processing Facility. Comments In the industry CPF may refers to any kind of manufacturing process as soon as it belongs to the core of the transformation of the facility. In the Oil and Gas industry, CPF belongs to the upstream activity to described the production unit performing the first transformation of the crude oil or raw natural gas after the production wells. In both cases, oil and gas, the crude oil and the raw natural gas extracted from the wells may contain many other materials than the crude oil or natural gas such as expected by the refineries or the gas liquefaction units. At the head of the production wells, the crude oil is collected with a proportion of the so called associated gas, with water and sand, and with all the types of solvents and additives used to enhance the oil production. The associated gas itself is a raw natural gas which may also contain, as the non-associated gas, a mix of various gases and liquids such as methane, ethane, propane, condensate and less interesting H2S. Transporting this mixture of crude oil or raw natural gas as it is from the well pad to a refinery or LNG plant may be challenging onshore or not even possible offshore as they request dedicated transportation processes. In addition the distances between the well pads and the refineries or gas liquefaction units increase over the years since companies explore always further. We may also considered that for the last 10 years we have entered in the era of the so called \\\"technological barrel\\\", not only because of the challenges to extract it from the underground, but also because of the quality of the mixture of the crude oil and raw natural gas deteriorating over the years. CPF a key ring of the Technological Barrel chain In this context and in order to avoid to ship crude oil or raw natural gas loaded by high percentages of impurities across the globe to be separated after transportation, the oil and gas companies have developed the concept of Central Processing Facility or CPF. The CPF is going to be installed as closed as possible to the production wells, meaning in a central position of the well pad or offshore platform. The crude oil or raw natural gas just collected from the wellheads can be directed by the shortest way to the CPF. If the main production of the field is crude oil, the purpose of the CPF is to separate the oil from the associated gas, the water, the sand and solvents or additives. The oil will be stored in tanks farm if onshore, or floating storage unit (FSU) if offshore, before being carried out by pipeline or shipped by tanker. The water may be treated and disposed or re-injected to enhance the production. The solvents and additives are collected to re-use. Central Processing Facilities to prevent Flaring In the past the associated gas was sent to the flare as considered as non valuable compared with the oil and because the environmental constraints were barely considered. Today the associated gas will be treated, in the same way as raw natural gas coming from non-associated gas, in a dedicated gas central processing facility. The gas CPF will separate the methane from the other gases, condensate, sulfur, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, CO2, etc... Each extracted component will be stored in dedicated areas for shipment with also dedicated transportation means. In some cases the CO2 may be collected for re-injection to enhance production or just to be stored in empty fields available around. Since the operating companies want to minimize flaring for environmental concern, they investigate all solution to monetize each and every ingredient collected together with the crude oil and raw natural gas. Therefore all the new fields developed must include at least a gas CPF and with crude oil they will also need an oil CPF. Most of the companies have also adopted in their good practice to reduce flaring on existing fields, thus to upgrade or revamp the upstream operations in adding new gas CPF or improving the performances of the actual ones.
Cracker : Definition: A cracker breaks down large molecules from oil and natural gas into smaller ones. An ethylene cracker produces base petrochemical building blocks which are the first stage in the chemicals manufacturing chain. Comments: Natural gas companies have to remove Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs) from methane to make it pipeline quality. NGLs are made up of ethane, propane, butane and other compounds. These can be used as feedstock to produce chemicals. Propane and butane are types of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and can also be used as fuels.
Creative Economy (South Korea) : Squeezed between the ballooning China and the resisting Japan, South Korea always used to see its future through its large industrial groups playing global and able to mobilize huge resources, especially after the 2008 financial crisis. Benefiting from global champions in the heavy industry as well as in the high technologies and communications, South Korea is betting on innovation to fuel its “Future of Manufacturing“ program called “Creative Economy”. Presented in 2013, the “Creative Economy” concept is not referring directly to the industry but more to the ecosystem that will generate the development of the solutions to support the “Future of Manufacturing”. Therefore the first measures of the “Creative economy” are not technical but related to the financial and legal environment that should favor the emergence of breakthrough innovation.
Cyber Physical System : The Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) refers to all the technologies enabling computerized resources and physical objects to interact together in a coordinated, reliable and continuous manner for performing multiple given tasks. As illustrated in the Figure 1 below, these CPS may combine hardware and software from physic, biology, engineering and information technologies. The first examples of CPS appeared in Germany during the Second World War with integrated systems to monitor the aircrafts wings. Since, the CPS were mainly developed in the aerospace industry. More recently they contributed to the dawning of the nanotechnologies and mechatronics sciences If the CPS has today found number of applications in all industrial sectors, the big data technologies have opened a new dimension in the digitalization of the industry. With the big data solutions, it becomes possible for a manufacturing entity to extend the field of applications of one particular CPS and even better to connect several CPS together. Thus the big data solutions are helping a company to deploy its digitalization level from independent systems to its entire manufacturing process. Assuming that all the companies have reached this first level of integration, the “Future of Manufacturing” introduces the next levels of industrial digitalization by the interconnection of these companies together.